Sunday, October 17, 2021

HOW SLAVE DYNASTY CAME INTO EXISTENCE – Qutubuddin Aibak

Muhammad Ghori, the real founder of Muslim power in India was the one to whom Qutubuddin Aibak was sold by kaji’s son. The 2nd battle of Tarain marked the beginning of the Turkish rule in the heart of India for the 1st time in history. Ghori in 1192 C.E. came in with better preparation and marched against Prithviraj Chauhan and defeated him at Tarain(near Thaneshwar).

Qutubuddin Aibak was the slave of Gori but he was good in Islamic theology and in handling weapons and all this impressed Gori and he made him in-charge of the horse stable(Amir-i-Akhnur). He was also the viceroy in the 1st battle of Tarain. After 1206 C.E. Muhammad Gori died there was a fight between commanders of Gori that who should become the king-Yaldoj, Qubacha, and Aibak.

Qutubuddin Aibak is the founder of this Mamluk dynasty(slave dynasty).

Mamluk dynasty was popularly called the slave dynasty but only Qutubuddin, Iltutmish, and Balban were slaves and their other descendants were not slaves. In fact, 3 dynasties ruled the period 1206 C.E. to 1290 C.E.

Qutbi dynasty (1206 C.E. -1211C.E.) founded by Qutubuddin Aibak. 1st Ilbari dynasty(1211-1266 C.E.) founded by Iltutmish. 2nd Ilbari dynasty(1211-1266 C.E.) founded by Balban. Ilbari dynasty is a tribe that belongs to Turks.
Aibak started the construction of Qutub Minar after the name of the famous Sufi saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhitiyar and it was later completed by Iltutmish who was the slave of Aibak.

He had built the Quwat-ul-Islam mosque at Delhi and Adhai-din-ka-jhopra at Ajmer.

He patronized the famous scholars Hasan Nizami and Fakr-i-Muddawar of which the former wrote Taj-ul-Masir( the first book was written about the Delhi sultanate).

He died in 1210 C.E. while playing chaugan or horse polo and was buried in Lahore. He was succeeded by Aram Shah but being a weak ruler he ruled only for 8 months.

Ankita Sharma

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